In 1609, Galileo, then Professor of Mathematics at Padua, in the service of the Venetian Republic, heard from a correspondent at Paris of the invention of a telescope, and set to work to consider how such an instrument could be made. The result was his invention of the telescope known by his name, and identical in principle with the modern opera-glass. In a maritime and warlike State, the advantages to be expected from such an invention were immediately recognised, and Galileo was rewarded with a confirmation of his Professorship for life, and a handsome stipend, in recognition of his invention and construction of the first telescope seen at Venice. In his pamphlet, The Sidereal Messenger, here translated, Galileo relates how he came to learn the value of the telescope for astronomical research; and how his observations were rewarded by numerous discoveries in rapid succession, and at[viii] length by that of Jupiter’s satellites. Galileo at once saw the value of this discovery as bearing upon the establishment of the Copernican system of astronomy, which had met with slight acceptance, and indeed as yet had hardly any recommendation except that of greater simplicity.