This book elaborates on the nationalization of the Turkish defense industry since the invasion of Iraq in 2003. The objective of the book is to understand the recent increasing trend of nationalization of the defense industry in Turkey. The book begins by analyzing the regional conjuncture and the lack of trust in allies in order to show how these influence Turkey’s investments in the sector. Then, it moves on to explain the country’s domestic structure which enables and inspires its politicians to attribute greater importance to industrial self reliance in defense. Lastly, it focuses on the political economy of the defense industry and the considerable amount of revenue the sector generates at the global level and for Turkey. The book concludes that focusing on developing modern technology and on the production of specific arms of defense is beneficial for Turkey’s future and position in the international market.